Prep: 1. Juice lemon. Mince/chop shallot and almonds. 2. Remove stems and slice kale. 3. Trim and thinly slice (or grate) brussels sprouts. 4. Grate cheese. Make: 1. Combine lemon juice, Dijon mustard, shallot, garlic, 1/4 teaspoon salt, and a pinch of pepper in a small bowl. Set aside. 2. Mix kale and brussels sprouts in a large bowl. 3. Heat a skillet over medium-high heat. 4. Add almonds to dry skillet and stir frequently until golden brown in spots, about 2 minutes. Transfer nuts to a paper towel-lined plate and sprinkle with salt. 5. Slowly whisk olive oil in cup into lemon-juice mixture. 6. Add dressing and cheese to kale mixture; toss to coat. Season lightly with salt and pepper. Garnish with almonds.
Do ahead: Dressing, kale mixture, and toasted almonds can be prepared 8 hours ahead. Cover dressing and kale mixture separately and chill. Cover almonds and let stand at room temperature.